Camille LeFevre addresses the "critical regionalism" in Minnesota architecture -- building design marked less by a common style than by its "material, formal restraint, attention to craftsmanship and horizontality" in honor of our prairie landscapes.
February 4, 2010

Photo by Heidi Swanson

Camille LeFevre's essay on the "critical regionalism" in Minnesota architecture is part of a series of topical articles, "Feeling Minnesota," jointly published by and Minnesota Playlist, a site with "information and inspiration for Minnesota's performing arts."


IN 1983, BRITISH ARCHITECTURAL CRITIC KENNETH FRAMPTON advocated a new approach to architecture in his essay, "Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six points for an architecture of resistance." Frampton decried a generic aspect he saw emerging in modern architecture: a one-design-fits-all quality in modernism's rigorous steel-and-glass boxes that spoke neither of the place nor of the culture for which for they were created and in which they were sited.

Frampton called for a new architecture that embraced the universalism of modernism, while also reflecting the context in which buildings were created. Topography and scenery, climate and sunlight (or lack thereof) -- all these are contextual characteristics, Frampton argued, that architects should respond to their designs. To offset what he called the "dominance of a universal technology," he proposed a deeper phenomenological approach to materiality, by which architects would select building products and systems indigenous to a place. In this way, a new modern architecture would speak of (not only to) the culture of its given location.

Back when I was editor of Architecture Minnesota magazine, I sat in on the selection of the AIA Minnesota Honor Awards, juried by three high-profile architects from elsewhere than Minnesota. As they pored through nearly 100 submissions -- single-family homes and multi-family housing, religious and corporate projects, from saunas and cabins in the woods to urban planning and the adaptive reuse of historic buildings -- invariably, the jurors would discuss a distinctive regionalism they saw manifested in the designs, particularly in the houses.

What they noticed was surely a manifestation of Framptonian "critical regionalism." Year after year, the projects selected for awards would almost always include those by regional starchitects who practice a modernist approach to design and whose work bears their aesthetic signature: David Salmela, Vince James, Julie Snow, to name a few. (Tim Carl, who works with Hammel, Green and Abrahamson, Inc. -- as does frequent honoree Joan Soranno -- also consistently wins Honor Awards for exceptional, aesthetically rigorous, high-performance architecture in a wide range of building types, from those related to the arts  to health care to educational projects.)

My successor confirms that the jurors' comments haven't changed. "Year in and year out, the jurors leave with the same lasting impressions of the work of Minnesota architects," observes Christopher Hudson, editor, Architecture Minnesota. "They say our best buildings are marked not by a common style, but by material and formal restraint, a special attention to craftsmanship, and horizontality -- all of which signal a deep respect for prairie and wooded landscapes."

He then quips, "Of course, the jurors may just be falling prey to photographer Peter Bastianelli-Kerze's panoramas, which capture the relationship of building to landscape so beautifully." (To be sure: If critical regionalism in architecture requires a photographer to synthesize design and contextuality in a static image, then Bastianelli-Kerze's horizontal, panoramic photographs evoke those harmonies admirably.)

"But I would concur with the visiting architects that there is an underlying sobriety to Minnesota architecture," Hudson continues. "Exuberance, color, humor, and provocation are not our strong suits."

Christian Dean, one of the founders of CityDESKStudio, doesn't entirely agree. This architect earned a 2006 Honor Award for a playful, inventive, yet understated addition to his own house. He says the jurors talk about "a clean palette, a restraint, a modesty" evident in Minnesota architecture. "Which kind of rubs some people the wrong way," Dean adds, "as in, 'We're not that uptight!'" He prefers the word "disciplined." "Yes, that's a better way to put it. There's an interest in what I'd call rustic formality, but we know when to stop."


"People talk about 'a clean palette, a restraint, a modesty' evident in Minnesota architecture. I prefer the word 'discipline' - we have an interest in what I'd call rustic formality, but we know when to stop."


Jurors aren't always enthusiastic, however, about the restrained (or disciplined) tendencies they attribute to our Scandinavian- and German-infused regional styles. Last year, Sebastian Schmaling, a German-born architect and co-founder of Johnsen Schmaling Architects in Milwaukee, published an article in Architecture Minnesota criticizing "a particular brand of Minnesota regionalism" that he dubbed "the Scandinavian-ization of architecture -- a regionalist design approach based on a sanitized Northern European vernacular -- that can be seen in a portion of Minnesota's residential architecture."

"Scandinavian-ization describes the creative process in which an architect applies a Scandinavian-themed veneer to a building or interior space in an attempt to imbue it with a level of regional authenticity," he continued, "thus setting it apart from contemporary run-of-the-mill production architecture that tends to look the same around the world, whether it is in Duluth or in Dubai."

Schmaling is an advocate of critical regionalism, writing that " a time when rampant globalism threatens to neutralize the world's aesthetic diversity, a locally rooted design language -- resulting in an architecture that responds to local conditions and reflects a particular region's cultural or ethnic heritage -- may be a legitimate tool to preserve or reinforce one's jeopardized identity." But what Schmaling decries is the use of regionally specific markers merely as "thematic window dressing," the habit of deploying certain vernacular notations in the design to wrap an otherwise banal building in an easy, regional reference.

There's at least one notable architect who escapes Schmaling's scandalized perspective on Scandinavian-ization: David Salmela, who has become the international poster-person for a critical regionalism unique to Minnesota. Salmela's work, especially his later residential designs, "shows that design excellence and aesthetic authenticity don't have to be at odds with a regionally inspired design vocabulary," Schmaling writes.

Thomas Fisher, a professor and the Dean of the College of Design at the University of Minnesota, wrote the 2005 book Salmela|Architect , and is finishing a new monograph, David Salmela, to be published in 2011. In his introduction to the forthcoming title, Fisher explains that, in the book, he organized the Duluth-based, Finnish-American architect's projects according to "climatic categories." In so doing, Fisher further refines the broadly based notion of critical regionalism -- especially its attention to the vagaries and extremes of the Midwestern climate -- into design work that's centered on five microclimates which, simultaneously, exemplify and home in on the architect's acute sensitivity to place: cold, wet weather = gable-roofed houses; cold, dry weather  = wind-break houses; hot, humid weather = shed-roof houses; hot, dry weather  = box-like buildings; mid-continent weather = clustered structures.

Further along in the text, Fisher quotes Salmela as saying, "I am not trying to be an American architect of Scandinavian descent, but our cultural roots come through in what we do." Salmela describes his design process as "simplifying, reducing, and distilling things down." Vernacular architecture, such as that of rural Northern Minnesota and in the Scandinavian countries, he says, is "about how to do things more efficiently." Salmela's comments are illustrative of the very restraint, the attention to materials and craftsmanship, and cultural and contextual respect that the AIA Honor Awards juries consistently notice in much of the work they find here.

"The best modern work expresses the deep continuity that we all have, whether aware of it or not, with the cultures, climates, and contexts that we inhabit," Fisher writes. No doubt Frampton would approve.


About the author: Camille LeFevre is an arts journalist who writes frequently about architecture and design. She also teaches arts journalism at the University of Minnesota.


brajesh singh:


Sebelum diperkenalkannya metode produksi Bessmer dan berbagai teknik produksi modern lainnya, baja termasuk material yang mahal dan hanya digunakan ketika tidak ada material alternatif yang lebih murah, khususnya untuk bagian tajam dari pisau, alat pencukur, dan pedang, dan berbagai alat perkakas yang membutuhkan bagian yang keras dan tajam. Baja pada saat itu juga digunakan untuk pegas, termasuk pegas yang digunakan pada jam. Harga besi siku baja Harga besi siku baja Agen pipa besi baja sch 40 sch 80 Harga besi wf Agen bondek undangan pernikahan unik Supplier Welded Beam T beam King Queen Cross Castellated Beam Supplier Pipa Besi baja Harga besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton delcoprima Jual besi siku baja Jual besi siku baja Agen Plat besi Jual besi wf Agen wiremesh undangan pernikahan ada foto Supplier Bondek Cor Agen Pipa Besi baja Jual besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton cakra steel cs Supplier besi siku baja Supplier besi siku baja Agen besi h beam Supplier besi wf Agen pipa besi baja sch 40 sch 80 undangan pernikahan yang unik Supplier Atap Spandek Sni Toko Pipa Besi baja Supplier besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton bjku Toko besi siku baja Toko besi siku baja Agen besi wf Toko besi wf Agen besi hollow undangan pernikahan ala jepang Supplier Plat Bordes Kembang jual laptop asus <a/> jual laptop asus <a/> jual laptop asus murah<a/> jual laptop asus murah<a/> Jual Pipa Besi baja Toko besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton Sni Ulir Polos Agen besi siku baja Agen besi siku baja Agen wiremesh Agen besi wf Agen besi beton Sni Ulir Polos undangan pernikahan simple undangan pernikahan arab Supplier Plat Besi Hitam Harga Pipa Besi baja Agen besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton ais Pabrik besi siku baja Pabrik besi siku baja Agen besi unp Pabrik besi wf Agen besi wf baja undangan pernikahan ala jepang Supplier Plat Kapal Bki Krakatau Steel Pabrik Pipa Besi baja Pabrik besi h beam baja Supplier besi beton Distributor besi wf Distributor besi wf Agen besi cnp Distributor besi hollow Agen besi unp undangan pernikahan bermanfaat Supplier Jual Besi Siku Baja Distributor Plat Kapal Besi baja Distributor plat besi hitam jasa konstruksi baja Harga besi wf Harga besi wf Agen besi hollow Harga besi hollow Agen besi siku undangan pernikahan ada fotonya Supplier Besi Unp Baja Profil Kanal Supplier Plat Kapal Besi baja Harga plat besi hitam Jual besi wf Jual besi wf Agen besi beton Sni Ulir Polos Jual besi hollow Agen Plat besi plat kapal Supplier Besi Cnp Profil Baja Gording Agen Plat Kapal Besi baja Jual plat besi hitam undangan pernikahan islami undangan pernikahan unik dan murah Supplier besi wf Supplier besi wf Supplier besi hollow Agen besi h beam baja undangan pernikahan cantik dan murah Supplier Besi Hollow Toko Plat Kapal Besi baja Supplier plat besi hitam Toko besi wf Toko besi wf Toko stainless steel Toko besi hollow Agen besi cnp undangan pernikahan akrilik Supplier Wiremesh Jual Plat Kapal Besi baja Toko plat besi hitam Pabrik besi beton Sni Ulir Polos polos ulir Agen besi wf Agen besi wf Toko atap spandek Agen besi hollow undangan pernikahan bentuk tas Supplier Besi Pipa Baja Schedule 80 Harga Plat Kapal Besi baja Agen plat besi hitam Pabrik besi beton sii Pabrik besi wf Pabrik besi wf Toko baja ringan Pabrik besi hollow Toko besi Wf Baja undangan pernikahan online Supplier Besi Pipa Baja Schedule 40 Pabrik Plat Kapal Besi baja Pabrik plat besi hitam Pabrik besi beton psi Ulir Polos Distributor besi hollow Distributor besi hollow Toko bondek Distributor pipa besi Toko bondek undangan pernikahan modern Supplier Pipa Besi Hitam Medium Distributor Wiremesh Besi baja Distributor plat kapal besi baja Pabrik besi beton perwira Harga besi hollow Harga besi hollow Toko Plat kapal besi baja bki krakatau steel Harga pipa besi Toko wiremesh undangan pernikahan unik dan murah Supplier Besi Wf Supplier Wiremesh Besi baja Harga plat kapal besi baja Pabrik besi beton PAS


Linker SEO:

This is my first time I visit here. I found such immense quantities of drawing in stuff in your blog, especially its talk. From the colossal measures of comments on your articles, I figure I am by all record by all account not the only one having all the amusement here! Continue doing amazing. I have been significance to make something like this on my site and you have given me an idea. Stop Smoking Aids

Linker SEO:

Really impressed! Everything is very open and very clear clarification of issues. It contains truly facts. Your website is very valuable. Thanks for sharing. crazy bulk Australia

Linker SEO:

It’s very informative and you are obviously very knowledgeable in this area. You have opened my eyes to varying views on this topic with interesting and solid content.biayaaborsi

Linker SEO:

I need to look destinations with pertinent data on given subject and give them to educator our conclusion and the article. best home projector

Linker SEO:

Blacklisted Loans. Bad Credit Loans: need a loan. Pronto Loans is situated in South Africa, Cape Town and do loans, personal loans,bad credit loans,blacklisted loans,quick loans,small loans,cash loans,unsecured loans,short term loans,debt consolidation loans.short term loans

Linker SEO:

A debt of gratitude is in order for such an extraordinary post and the audit, I am completely inspired! Keep stuff like this coming. Kasauti Zindagi Ki

Linker SEO:

I am overpowered by your post with such a decent theme. Typically I visit your web journals and get refreshed through the data you incorporate yet the present blog would be the most obvious. Well done! Bigg Boss 12

Linker SEO:

Incredible Blog! I might want to thank for the endeavors you have made in composing this post. I am trusting a similar best work from you later on also. I needed to thank you for this sites! Much obliged for sharing. Incredible sites! best wrinkle cream


<a href="">crazy bulk reviews</a> 

Linker SEO:

I don t have the time at the moment to fully read your site but I have bookmarked it and also add your RSS feeds. I will be back in a day or two. thanks for a great site.FS 19 mods

Linker SEO:

I don t have the time at the moment to fully read your site but I have bookmarked it and also add your RSS feeds. I will be back in a day or two. thanks for a great site. bonus400


<a href="">vigrx plus</a>  Does VigRX plus really work? Real reviews from customers, ingredients, side effects, clinical studies and where to buy.

Linker SEO:

I was very pleased to find this site.I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it and I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post. best stocks

Linker SEO:

You re in point of fact a just right webmaster. The website loading speed is amazing. It kind of feels that you're doing any distinctive trick. Moreover, The contents are masterpiece. you have done a fantastic activity on this subject! putlockers movies

Linker SEO:

We are tied particularly into the fulfill's rebuilding database which empowers us to process your request promptly. christian site

MN Artists